In Pictures: How World War I Changed Women’s Fashion

An exhibition at the Bard Graduate Center tracks women’s contributions to the industry, as styles shifted ‘from frivolous to functional’ 

Six women in skirt suits posing outside, May 15, 19__, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

Six women in skirt suits posing outside, May 15, 19__, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

World War I conjures a particular set of associations. We are likely to envision battlefields lined with trenches and thick clouds of tear gas. We might equally imagine the dissociative horror of shell shock, so vividly captured by the Expressionists.

Chas Laborde (Charles Laborde), L’Emancipation feminine, in Le Rire Rouge, 1918, lithograph. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

Chas Laborde (Charles Laborde), ‘L’Emancipation feminine’, in Le Rire Rouge, 1918, lithograph. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

Although such images are faithful representations of the conflict, they tell only part of its story, as demonstrated in ‘French Fashion, Women, and The First World War,’ the Bard Graduate Center’s fascinating study of fashion and gender in France from 1914 to 1918. Shifting attention to the home front, the show considers how French women experienced the Great War, casting it as a moment of sartorial revolution that brought with it the hope – if not the realization – of social revolution.

Philipe Ortiz, model wearing the ‘Déesse’ dress by Callot Sœurs, shown at the ‘Fête Parisienne’ in New York, 1915, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Philipe Ortiz, model wearing the ‘Déesse’ dress by Callot Sœurs, shown at the ‘Fête Parisienne’ in New York, 1915, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Though the art of haute couture and that of warfare seem to have little in common, the exhibition reveals that women’s fashion was a critical source of French revenue throughout World War I. French designers – many of them female – kept the national economy afloat, manufacturing shorter, simplified evening dresses for export, accompanied by propaganda that equated supporting Paris fashion houses to giving military aid. (For example, a flared petticoat debuted before 1914 was rebranded a ‘war crinoline’.) Women were also crucial to maintaining traditionally masculine industries and public services, taking over positions as munitions manufacturers, tram operators or chimneysweeps. This work required comfortable clothing, pushing women to adopt looser and more androgynous apparel, including pants and overalls, thus further accelerating the shift toward straighter silhouettes and higher hemlines.

Philippe Ortiz, model wearing the “Déesse” dress by Callot Sœurs, shown at the “Fête Parisienne” in New York, 1915, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Philippe Ortiz, model wearing the ‘Déesse’ dress by Callot Sœurs, shown at the ‘Fête Parisienne’ in New York, 1915, silver gelatin print. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

 

Dartey (Anette Osterlind), ‘La “Fête Parisienne” a New York,’ in Le Style Parisien, 1915. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Dartey (Anette Osterlind), ‘La “Fête Parisienne” a New York,’ in Le Style Parisien, 1915. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

As illustrated in a smart selection of advertisements, fashion plates and garments, in a brief span of four years, women’s fashion went from frivolous to functional: out went the pouf and pain of prewar designs, such as the ‘hobble skirt’, so named because its tight cinch prevented walking. In came the narrow mid-length dresses we associate today with flappers or garçonnes, their French equivalent.

Paul Iribe, La Baïonnette, 1917, lithograph. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

Paul Iribe, La Baïonnette, 1917, lithograph. Courtesy: Association Pour l’Histoire de la Mode

 

Belle Jardinière, US Military nurse’s uniform, c.1916, wool twill. Courtesy: © The Museum at FIT, Gift of Margaret Lawson

Belle Jardinière, US Military nurse’s uniform, c.1916, wool twill. Courtesy: © The Museum at FIT, Gift of Margaret Lawson

Liberating women’s fashion unfortunately did not translate into women’s political emancipation. (Suffrage did not come to France until the 1940s.) But as the exhibition proves, World War I was nevertheless an important step in the march toward women’s rights – launching an unprecedented number of women into the workforce and allowing them to test new modes of self-expression.

‘French Fashion, Women, & The First World War’ is on view at the Bard Graduate Center, New York City until 5 January 2020.

Georges Lepape, Vive la France, 1917, lithograph, pochoir coloration. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Georges Lepape, Vive la France, 1917, lithograph, pochoir coloration. Courtesy: Diktats bookstore

Hannah Stamler is a New York-based writer and Ph.D. student at Princeton University. 

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