Collaboration: A Potential History of Photography

Critiquing the dominance of the white imperial gaze at Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto

In ‘Collaboration: A Potential History of Photography’, 96 photographic projects exploring alternate production models are presented through images and texts on white squares organized into eight large grids, each representing different modes and degrees of collaboration between photographer and subject. These range from the coercive, exemplified by Marc Garanger’s ID photographs from the 1960s of unveiled Muslim women during Algeria’s French occupation, to the democratic, such as W.E.B. Du Bois’s collection of photographs of African Americans, which was displayed in the 1900 Paris Exposition.

Echoing the impassioned tone of earlier avant-garde movements, the manifesto accompanying this ‘collaborative laboratory’ promotes alternate approaches to photographic production and history. It critiques a canon populated by white males whose imperial gaze asserts technical and aesthetic mastery over available subjects – a kind of visual resource extraction. In opposition, it asserts that photography – in its reliance on external systems and subjects – is ontologically collaborative. This exhibition values photography more as an ‘event’ than a product.

web_4-cmyk.jpg

Wendy Ewald, American Alphabets (Arabic), Students at PS231, 2003, included in 'Collaboration: A Potential History of Photography', research project, 2017. Courtesy: Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto

These ideas aren’t new. Since the 1970s photographers have sought strategies to disperse authorship. Projects by two ground-breaking ‘social practice’ photographers (and ‘Collaboration’ co-curators, along with Ariella Azoulay, Leigh Raiford and Laura Wexler) are included here: Wendy Ewald, who gave cameras to communities to help them represent themselves for ‘Portraits and Dreams’ (1976–ongoing); and Susan Meiselas, whose non-sensationalistic photographs document the Nicaraguan resistance (1978–79) and the collectively sourced diasporic web archive, aka Kurdistan (1998–ongoing). Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin’s photographs of incarceration victims, Ghetto (2003), demonstrate an uneasy tension between collaborative intentions and exploitation. Despite their control of the shutter release, how much agency did the hospital-gowned residents of a Cuban psychiatric institution really have?

To expand on the theme of ‘Collaborations’, Ryerson Image Centre’s director, Paul Roth, along with co-curator Ilana Shamoon, has organized the most comprehensive exhibition of Jim Goldberg’s ‘Rich and Poor’ project (1977–85), which is presented in a dedicated gallery. The 47 black and white portraits of members of each economic class in the US, accompanied by archival materials, arose from Goldberg’s awareness of increasing economic division as postwar decline exposed the contradictions of American exceptionalism. Moving to San Francisco, he began visiting the struggling poor in crumbling welfare hotels and the sheltered elite in elegant homes.

web_8.jpg

W.E.B Du Bois, “American Negro Exhibit” (Atlanta’s African-American middle class), Universal Exhibition, Paris Exposition, 1900, included in 'Collaboration: A Potential History of Photography', research project, 2017. Courtesy: Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto

After photographing his subjects, Goldberg returned with prints and lists of questions: ‘How do you look in the photo?’ ‘What’s it like being poor/rich?’ In an audio recording of his interview with the leisured Mrs Stone and her servant, Vicky Figueroa, he roots out the painful experiences and self-delusions that often accompany sharp inequality. In the final image, Vicky stands stiffly behind her employer. Her handwritten comments beneath their portrait clarify the chasm between them: ‘My dream was to become a school teacher […] I have been a servant for 40 years.’

In another image, a man and woman stand in happy embrace on one edge of a cracked wall. Far across the frame a baby lying on a bed cries, arm outstretched to the camera. Hand-writing beneath the frame reads: ‘Me and Bobby been together for two weeks and we’re still happy.’ Perhaps Goldberg hoped that by inviting subjects to add their words to the frame, their portraits would become more objective. But more often, a multiplicity of perspectives –  artist, subject and viewer –  collide in sad ambiguity.

‘Collaboration’ critiques the elevation of singular artists. Goldberg’s ‘Rich and Poor’ offers a model of concerted practice. Their pairing introduces interesting tensions: separating one collaborative project into a conventional exhibition format illustrates the difficulty of realizing new display models for endeavours that aim to reposition the traditional elevation of artist, curator and critic. Old art habits die hard.

‘Collaboration. A Potential History of Photography’ runs at Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto, until 8 April. 

Main image: 'Collaboration. A Potential History of Photography', 2018, installation view, Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto. Courtesy: Ryerson Image Centre, Toronto; photograph: © Clifton Li

Jill Glessing is a writer and lecturer in the History of Photography, Art History, and Visual Art Theory at Ryerson University, Ontario.

Issue 194

First published in Issue 194

April 2018

Most Read

In further news: white supremacist vandals attack Rothko Chapel; Israeli minister bans art produced in solidarity with...
To experience the music of the composer, who passed away last week at the age of 69, was to hear something tense,...
In a year charged with politicized tensions, mastery of craft trumps truth-to-power commentary
The US writer, who died last week, brought a quality of inestimable importance to the modern novel: a mind that was...
The $21M painting was the highest price ever paid for a work by a living African American artist at auction
Royal bodies, the ‘incel’ mindset and those Childish Gambino hot-takes: what to read this weekend
In further news: women wearing rainbow badges beaten in Beijing’s 798; gallerists Georg Kargl and Richard Gray have...
‘Coping as a woman in France is a daily battle: the aggression can be subtle, and you always have to push harder to...
The rapper and artist have thoughts about originality in art; Melania Trump tries graphic design – all the latest...
The dilapidated Nissen hut from which Rachel Whiteread will take a cast
Yorkshire residents complain that the concrete sculpture of a ‘Nissen hut’ will attract excrement, vandalism and litter
Poul Erik Tøjner pays tribute to Denmark’s most important artist since Asger Jorn
Toyin Ojih Odutola’s portraits of a fictional aristocratic Nigerian family push toward an expanded definition...
Photographer Dragana Jurisic says her account was deactivated after she uploaded an artwork depicting a partially naked...
In further news: open letter protests all-male shortlist for BelgianArtPrize; Arts Council of Ireland issues...
From Sol Calero’s playful clichés of Latin America to an homage to British modernist architect Alison Smithson
Everybody’s favourite underpaid, over-educated, raven-haired art critic, Rhonda Lieberman, is as relevant as ever
‘Prize & Prejudice’ at London's UCL Art Museum is a bittersweet celebration of female talent
The curators want to rectify the biennale’s ‘failure to question the hetero-normative production of space’; ‘poppers...
A fragment of the brutalist Robin Hood Gardens will go on show at the Venice Architecture Biennale
‘Women's role in shaping the history of contemporary art is being reappraised’
Three shows in Ireland celebrate the legendary polymath, artist and author of Inside the White Cube
The legendary performance artists will partner up again to detail their tumultuous relationship in a new book
An open letter signed by over 100 leading artists including 15 Turner prize-winners says that new UK education policy...
Naturists triumph at art gallery; soothing students with colouring books; Kanye’s architectural firm: your dose of art...
Avengers: Infinity War confirms the domination of mass culture by the franchise: what ever happened to narrative...
The agency’s founder talks about warfare in the age of post truth, deconstructing images and holding states and...
From hobnobbing with Oprah to championing new art centres, millennial crown prince Mohammed bin Salman is following a...
A juror for the award last year, Dan Fox on why the Turner Prize is and always will be political (whatever that means)
The argument that ancestral connection offers a natural grasp of the complex histories and aesthetics of African art is...
One of most iconic and controversial writers of the past 40 years, Tom Wolfe discusses writing, art and intellectual...

Latest Magazines

frieze magazine

March 2018

frieze magazine

April 2018

frieze magazine

May 2018